Basic Data


System of Government: Parliamentary Democracy with a two-chamber parliament, the Sejm (Lower house with 460 representatives) and the Senat (Upper house with 100 representatives)

President: Andrzej Duda (since 6 August 2015)

Prime Minister: Mateusz Morawiecki (since 11 December 2017)

Administrative divisions: 16 Voivodships, 380 urban and rural districts, 2478 Municipalities

Executive Branch: President (5 year term), Council of Ministers (4 year term)

Poland is a democratic parliamentary republic whose rules of functioning are defined by the Constitution of 2nd April 1997. Its political system is based on the separation of and balance between the legislative, executive and judicial powers. Legislative power is vested in the Sejm and the Senate (the lower and upper chamber of the Polish parliament), executive power is vested in the President of the Republic of Poland and the Council of Ministers and judicial power is vested in courts and tribunals.

The Sejm is composed of 460 deputies and the Senat of 100 senators. Both are chosen in universal elections for a 4-year term of office each. A bill passed by the Sejm is submitted to the Senat, which within 30 days may adopt it without amendments, adopt amendments or resolve upon its complete rejection.

The President heads the executive authority. In accordance with the current Constitution, the President of the Republic of Poland is the head of state, the supreme representative of Poland and the guarantor of the continuity of government. The President is appointed to represent Polish interests on the international arena, ensures the observance of the Constitution, and is responsible for the security of the state. The President is elected in universal, equal and direct elections for a 5-year term of office.


Capital: Warsaw with 1.7 m inhabitants

Population: appr. 38.5 m (2015)

Population density: 123/km²

Area: 312,685 km2 (120,728 sq miles)

Poland is the 6th largest country by population and by area among the EU28 member states.

Official language: Polish

Currency: Złoty (zł/PLN); 1 Zloty = 100 Groszy


Main exports: Machinery and transport equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals

Business languages: Polish, English, German

GDP total (nominal): $ 549.478 billion (2018 estimated)

GDP total (PPP): $ 1.201 trillion (2018 estimated)

GDP per capita (nominal): $ 14,468 (2018 estimated)

GDP per capita (PPP): $ 31,647 (2018 estimated)

GDP real growth rate: 4.8% (2017)

Inflation (CPI): 1.9% (2017)

Schengen area: a member of the Schengen area since 2007

In 1999, Poland became a member of NATO and on 1 May 2004 Poland joined the EU.


VAT (Value Added Tax): standard rate of 23% and reduced rates of 8% and 5% applied to certain classes of goods and services

CIT (Corporate Income Tax): 19% (flat rate tax)

PIT (Personal Income Tax): 18%, 32% (progressive income tax scale)


Time Zone: CET (UTC+1), CEST (UTC+2) (March-October)

International vehicle registration code: PL

Telephone country code: + 48

Internet-TLD: .pl


Major religion: Christianity (catholics)

Life expectancy: 72 years (men), 81 years (women) (UN)